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Is PEScience Select Protein Review

🚫PEScience Review: Low Score, Think Twice! 🤔

Unbiased PEScience Select Protein Review

In this unbiased PEScience Select Protein review, we’ll take a closer look at a product that even fitness influencer Jeff Nippard stands by. Before we dive in, let’s understand what PEScience Select Protein is and address the following questions

  • Are supplements endorsed by social media celebrities worth the hype?
  • Is PEScience worth your money?
  • Is PEScience protein good?

As a seasoned expert in strength, conditioning, and nutrition, I’m here to peel back the layers of this popular protein powder. Remember, my goal isn’t just to inform but also to empower you with a critical eye – so you can make the best choice for your fitness journey.

🌟 As a certified expert in strength, conditioning (NSCA), nutrition (Precision Nutrition, CISSN), I bring a hands-on, unbiased approach to my protein reviews. My insights come from personal use, not just research, ensuring you get real-world feedback on each product.

👥 I choose products for review based on your requests, their relevance, and my genuine interest. This isn’t influenced by brand sponsorships, allowing me to maintain impartiality.

💼 Transparency matters to me: while I may use affiliate links, they don’t cost you extra. Purchases made through these links might earn me a small commission, but they don’t sway my opinions or the integrity of my reviews.

📖 PEScience Protein Powder Review Details

Protein brands will go to great lengths to grab your hard-earned cash. Let’s be honest, protein powders are getting pricey. You crave a protein that not only tastes fantastic but also doesn’t drain your wallet. So, what’s the secret sauce for a protein company to win your dollars?

PEScience freebies with every purchase
Every purchase you get freebies of PEScince protein samples… In hope for a positive review

PEScience doesn’t hold back. With every purchase, they throw in freebies of their PEScience protein samples, all in the hopes of earning a glowing review.

👍 They offer an attractive price point.
🌟 Tons of rave reviews flood their website, averaging a perfect 5-star rating.
📢 Backed by YouTube fitness guru Jeff Nippard.
📚 They provide articles and educational content to establish trust in their products.
🎁 Generous with free supplements included in your order.

PEScience hits it out of the park with:

💲 A container priced at $37 (or available in 4 interest-free payments).
🌟 Over 26,000 glowing reviews, all rating PEScience at a stellar 5 out of 5 stars.
🏋️‍♂️ A product line and training stack personally endorsed by Jeff Nippard.

And don’t forget their informative articles, including discussions on:

🧪 The Amino Acid Spiking Debate.
🤔 The role of Leucine in Your Protein.

Plus, when I made my PEScience purchase, I scored 6 free samples of 3 different proteins and 3 different preworkouts. Their website is a treasure trove of supplements catered to fitness enthusiasts, offering everything from fat burners to products for deep night sleep, endurance, and bulking.

But here’s the kicker: I bought two containers of PEScience protein. So, let’s get into the review to see if PEScience protein is good.

💰 Where to BuyPEScience Protein Powder

I purchased one container each of PEScience Select Protein in the flavors “Amazing” Cake Pop and “Amazing” Strawberry Cheesecake.

Pricing Options:

  • Single Container: $36.99 for 27 servings ($1.37 per serving)
  • Single Container (Subscribe and Save, 10% off): $33.29 ($1.23 per serving)

Value Containers:

  • Large Container (55 servings): $64.99 ($1.18 per serving)
  • Large Container (Subscribe and Save, 10% off): $58.49 ($1.06 per serving)

When you examine the pricing options and calculate the cost per serving, it’s clear that you’re getting excellent value for your money.

It’s important to note that there are some significant concerns regarding this protein powder that I’ll address in the following sections.

  • Protein Spiking
  • Mixability
  • Ingredient Profile

PEScience Refund Policy

PEScience does not provide a straightforward money-back guarantee. Refunds are only granted for unopened products, leaving customers with limited options.

Screen capture of PEScience refund policy
You’re essentially stuck with the product. Refunds granted for only closed products.

Is PEScience Third Party Tested

PEScience products are manufactured under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards to ensure safety. I even obtained a toxicology report confirming the safety of their protein products.

PEScicne 3rd party lab tests to show their products are not contaminated. Not an amino acid profile.
PEScicne 3rd party lab tests to show their products are not contaminated. Not an amino acid profile.

PEScience conducts 3rd-party lab tests to ensure their products are free from contamination. However, these tests do not provide information about the amino acid profile.

Concerns and Questions:

It’s important to note a few factors:

  • I have never purchased the cookies and cream flavor.
  • I have not purchased the 55-serving container.
  • The protein was purchased in June.

The toxicology report, while reassuring, is often just a file that customer service representatives send to customers upon request..

Value: 5. At first glance, you feel like you are getting a great value with PEScience Select Protein. It begs the question, does PEScience protein meet your specific needs and expectations. More specifically, is PEScience protein good?

🤯 Is PES Select Protein Amino Spoiked?

You don’t have to look at the label to see if this protein is spiked. All you need to do is read the bullet points on the front of the label.

  • Premium Whey+Casein Blend
  • Finest Milk Protein Isolate
  • 5 g BCAAs (red flag #2)
  • PepForm, LEUCINE PEPTIDES (red flag #1)

Leucine in protein powder isn’t bad nor wrong. You can calculate leucine content by multiplying the protein per serving by 10%, a method even mentioned in an article by PEScience.

However, the issue arises when you want to scrutinize the amino acid profile closely. Unfortunately, the amino acid table on the container lacks detailed and specific information. The umberella amino profile serves as a broad overview.

How To Tell If A Protein Powder Is Amino Spiked

Here’s my savvy strategy for sniffing out amino-spiked supplement powders:

  1. Hunt for the Amino Acid Profile: I start by looking for a legit, printed-on-the-label amino acid profile. No shortcuts here – it should be right there in black and white.
  2. Nutrition Facts Detective: Next, I dive into the nutrition facts. I keep an eagle eye out for any sneaky “recovery blends.” We want pure protein, not a science experiment.
  3. Ingredient List Inspection: Then, I scrutinize the ingredient list. If I spot extra peptides and amino acids, they better have a good reason for being there.
  4. Digital Data Dive: Time to go digital. I hit up the protein powder’s website, searching for a digital amino acid profile. It’s like a virtual fingerprint – it better match what’s on the label.
  5. Bold Request: If things still feel fishy, I don my investigative hat and contact the supplement company. I don’t mess around; I straight-up ask for that amino acid profile.
  6. Learn from the Past: To seal the deal, I check out previous protein powder profiles from reviews. If there’s a history of shifty business, it won’t escape my radar.

Now, let’s spill the beans on what I uncovered with PEScience Protein powder and its amino acid profile. Hold onto your hats; this is where it gets juicy! 🕵️‍♂️🔍

PEScience Printed Amino Acid Profile

On every PEScience protein container, there is a modified amino acid profile. Unfortunately, the profile is incomplete and doesn’t provide specific weights for individual amino acids.

PEScience seems to avoid emphasizing amino acids and instead aims to highlight the protein’s overall quality.

Picture of a general EAA profile. Not an amino acid profile.
This type of label does not qualify as a detailed amino acid profile.

Examine PEScience Nutrition Facts and Ingredients List

The nutrition facts do not list any “recovery blends.” However, when examining the ingredient list, you’ll find PepForm listed.

What is PepForm?

This information is pull straight from UL website

PepForm® Leucine Peptides is made from a proprietary process that binds free form leucine to peptides isolated from fresh sweet whey using advanced fractionation and separation technologies. This unique separation and processing technology results in 40% leucine content.

Contacting PEScience for Answers About Amino Spiking

I had several questions:

  1. Can I obtain an amino acid profile for PEScience Select Protein?
  2. How much added leucine (PepForm) is in one serving of PEScience Select Protein?
  3. Are the leucine peptides included in the 24g of protein?
  4. What is PepForm?

Here’s why an amino acid profile is crucial:

Typically, leucine in protein powders is around 10% to 11%. For PEScience, the leucine content should be approximately 2.4 to 2.64 grams per serving.

Companies that spike their protein powder often avoid sharing an amino acid profile, opting for vague terms like “proprietary blend.”

In the Ring with PEScience CSR

To get to the bottom of the amino acid mystery, I put on my detective hat and went straight to the source – PEScience’s customer service. Here’s the scoop from our Q&A bout:

  • My Jab: Can we see the full amino acid profile for PEScience Select Protein?
  • PEScience’s Dodge: No detailed breakdown available. (Cue the mystery music!)
  • My Hook: How much leucine, specifically PepForm, is in each serving?
  • PEScience’s Weave: They sent me an article about protein blending instead. Informative? Yes. Answering my question? Nope.
  • My Uppercut: Are those leucine peptides part of the 24g protein claim?
  • PEScience’s Guard: Again, elusive. It’s like trying to nail jelly to a wall.

Turns out, PEScience keeps their cards close to their chest. They tout transparency but when asked for specifics, they deliver a masterclass in deflection. It’s like asking for a straight answer and getting a riddle instead.

My verdict? While I appreciate the effort in their response, it felt more like a dance than a dialogue. It leaves us with more questions than answers, especially when comparing to brands like Optimum Nutrition, who lay it all out there, clear as day.

So, should you trust PEScience? Let’s just say, proceed with caution. In the world of protein powders, clarity is king, and here, PEScience is playing the game of thrones.

Other reputable and honest manufacturers, such as Optimum Nutrition, Pure Choice,Ghost Protein, Canadian Protein, Vade Nutrition,Clean Simple Eats, and Six Star Nutrition, provide amino acid tables with specific amino acid profiles.

When a PEScience shares they don't test amino acid profiles with each batch. Nor do they have that information available... SPIKED
PEScience stated that they do not test amino acid profiles with each batch, and this information is not available, suggesting that the product may be spiked.

Unfortunately, we do not collect the specific data for every amino acid for each lot of protein we [produce].

PEScience Rep reponse

Is PEScience A Good Protein Powder?

Can PEScience be a good protein powder after this interaction? Let’s cut to the chase with leucine.

PEScience protein is a bit of a mystery box. They throw in leucine peptides, but without a full amino acid breakdown, we’re left guessing. Is it muscle magic or just smoke and mirrors?

Bottom line: when it comes to protein, clarity is king, and here, PEScience’s crown is a bit tarnished.

Protein Spiking: 1 (Questionable). Protein spiking occurs when a manufacturer adds glyceine, leucine, or other nitrogen components to artificialy inflate the amount of protein per serving. It’s important to verify such claims by doing the math.

Reputable manufacturers typically provide a detailed amino acid table to ensure transparency. Unfortunately, my interactions with PEScience resulted in vague responses and an umbrella amino acid table. This suggests that consumers may not be receiving the full 24 grams of protein per serving, potentially as low as 15-20 grams.

The lack of a detailed amino acid profile and unclear information about PepForm raise concerns about the quality and transparency of PEScience protein powder. The absence of clear answers from the manufacturer further compounds these issues, making it essential for consumers.

🤝 How Does PEScience Protein Shake?


Mixing PEScience protein powder can be a bit frustrating. The main culprit here is the inclusion of milk protein, which tends to clump when mixed. You might encounter those annoying dry powder clumps at the top of your shaker more often than not.

Occasionally, you might get lucky and achieve a smooth mix, but that’s a rare occurrence.

Mixability: 6.5. If you’ve ever tried mixing Body Fortress protein, PEScience is somewhat better, but it still falls short of delivering a consistently smooth blending experience.

🧪 PEScience Select Protein Review – Protein Ingredients

Majority of the protein powders that I review are usually, at most, three protein blend. That three protein blend is compromised from whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and hydrolyzed whey protein.

PEScience is doing something quite unique and similar to what BSN Syntha-6 is doing. A robust multistage protein powder blend. Just like in Syntha-6, Leucine, in this case Leucine Peptides, is a listed ingredient in PEScience Select Protein.

Here’s my question to PEScience…

If Leucine is already a naturally occuring nutrient in protein. Why add it to your Select Protein powders?

PEScience Select Protein Blend Ingredients, Strawberry Cheesecake

IngredientDescription & Purpose
Milk Protein IsolateA high-quality protein source combining both casein and whey, offering a balanced profile of slow and fast-digesting proteins for sustained amino acid release. A highly filtered casein protein. Lower lactose than casein.
Casein ProteinPart of milk protein isolate, casein is a slow-digesting protein that provides a steady release of amino acids, ideal for muscle recovery and reducing muscle breakdown.
Whey ProteinAlso part of milk protein isolate, whey is a fast-absorbing protein, aiding in quick muscle recovery and growth post-exercise.
Whey Protein Concentrate 80%A less processed form of whey protein with some lactose and fat, providing a balance of protein, taste, and nutrition.
Leucine PeptidesHighly bioavailable form of the essential amino acid leucine, known for its role in muscle protein synthesis and repair.
The based protein components found in PEScience

How Much Leucine Per Day For Muscle Growth

Let’s break down the muscle-building heavy hitter: leucine. How much leucine per day do you really need to grow muscle?

You’ve probably seen and read PEScience and Leucine peptides, but what’s the real deal? Whey protein is about 10% leucine, giving you roughly 2-2.5 grams per scoop.

But here’s the kicker – you need at least 3 grams to really fire up muscle synthesis. In short, some protein powders might be leaving your muscles hungry for more.

PEScience plays this game by adding extra leucine. Smart move? Maybe. But without clear numbers, it’s like a game of guesswork. And here’s a fun fact – studies show that even rats bulking up on leucine see muscle gains. Imagine what it can do for you!

Now, you’re thinking: How much leucine is enough? Science says aim for 3 to 6 grams. But with PEScience’s vague details, we’re left squinting at the label. Do they hit the mark? It’s anybody’s guess.

Here’s the bottom line: Mixing a dash of leucine (around 0.75 grams) with a modest 6.25 grams of whey can kickstart muscle growth. But don’t just focus on leucine; balance is key. Like a well-rounded diet, your muscles crave a variety of nutrients, not just a one-hit wonder.

SupplementAmount of Whey ProteinAmount of LeucineEffect on Muscle Protein Synthesis
Whey Protein Only25 grams3.0 gramsHigh increase in MPS
Whey Protein + Extra Leucine6.25 grams3.0 gramsHigh increase in MPS (same as WHEY)
Whey Protein + Other EAAs6.25 grams0.75 gramsHigh increase in MPS (same as WHEY)
A minimum of 6.25g of whey mixed with 3.0g of leucine is effective at stimulating MPS.

Understanding Leucine and Whey Protein: How much do you really need for muscle growth?

Here are the keypoints in how much leucine and whey protein do you need for muscle growth.

Key Points:

  1. Leucine and Whey Protein Together: Adding a little bit of leucine (about 0.75 grams) to a small amount of whey protein (6.25 grams) works well for muscle growth, especially just after exercise.
  2. Works Fast but Not for Long: This mix helps your muscles grow quickly, but the effect doesn’t last as long as when you take more whey protein.
  3. Just Enough Leucine: A small amount of leucine (around 0.75 grams) is enough if you also have other important nutrients from a complete protein (essential amino acids).
  4. Good for Those Who Can’t Eat Much Protein: If someone finds it hard to eat a lot of protein, adding leucine can be a good way to help their muscles grow, especially right after working out.
  5. Balance of Nutrients is Key: It’s important to have the right amount of leucine and other nutrients from protein for the best muscle growth.

Leucine and PEScience Protein

Leucine and PEScience protein go hand-in-hand.

Leucine’s the star in the muscle-building show, but PEScience’s script is missing pages. They claim 24 grams of protein per scoop – but without a full amino breakdown, we’re left guessing.

If the muscle-building sweet spot is only 6.25 grams of protein with a leucine sidekick of just 0.75 grams, why bother with PEScience’s 24 grams?

It’s like they’re saying, ‘Trust us,’ but forgot the part where trust is earned, not given. And with the leucine numbers not adding up, it feels like we’re being shortchanged in the gains department.

Other Ingredients found in PEScience Strawberry Cheescake

IngredientDescription & Purpose
Natural and Artificial FlavorsEnhance the overall flavor of the protein powder, making it more enjoyable to consume.
SaltAdds flavor and can also be important for maintaining electrolyte balance in the body, especially post-exercise.
Guar GumA thickening and stabilizing agent that improves the texture of the protein shake, ensuring a smooth consistency.
SucraloseA zero-calorie artificial sweetener that provides sweetness without adding calories or impacting blood sugar levels.
Acesulfame PotassiumAnother artificial sweetener used alongside sucralose to enhance the sweetness of the protein powder without extra calories.
Other ingredients found in PEscience Select protein.

With so many questions regarding how much protein you are truly getting per serving with PEScience Select. It’s possible that drinkin 2 cups of fair life skim milk post workout, may be equal to drinking one serving of PEScience Select.

Are you truly getting a great value by buying PEScience?

With the information shared, you may experience buyers remorse.

Without knowing how much Leucine you are getting per serving and the lack of a detail amino acid profile, I’m questioning the actual amout of protein per serving.

Ingredient Profile: 6. I don’t have a problem seeing multiple protein sources. My problem is not having a transparent label with how much protein you are receiving per serving. My other issue with PEScience, how much leucine am I getting per serving.

✅ PEScience Select Protein Review – Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 32.5g
Flavor: Strawberry Cheesecake

Calories 120

  • Total Fat 1g
  • Sodium 240mg
  • Carbohydrate 4g
  • Total Sugars 2g
  • Protein 24g (questionable)

Protein per serving: 24g/32.5g=73% protein per serving. Since this product is spiked and you’re not receiving a true 24g per serving. The amount of protein per serving can vary between 46% to 62%

Macro Composition: 5. PEScience Select Protein has a questionable 24 grams of protein per serving. As we learned, we don’t have a specific amino acid profile. We also don’t know how much leucine per serving we are drinking.

The highest possible grade would have been a 7. But with so many unknowns with PEScience protein, you’re trending into buyers remorse.

😋 Best PEScience Protein Flavor?

Taste-tested Strawberry Cheesecake and Cake Pop – it’s a rollercoaster.

Strawberry Cheesecake? A decent ride with a tangy twist.

Cake Pop? More like a bland merry-go-round.

It’s a mixed bag – some flavors hit, some miss. And those online raving reviews? Take ’em with a pinch of salt – or maybe a scoop of protein.

Available PEScience Protein Powder Flavors:

Chocolate TruffleCake PopSnickerdoodleChocolate Peanut Butter Cup​Strawberry Cheesecake
Frosted Chocolate Cupcake​Cookies N Cream​Peanut Butter CookieGourmet Vanilla​Chocolate Mint Cookie
PEScience protein flavors you can purchase.

PEScience Select Protein Best Flavor

Checking the reviews on PEScience’s website, there is an overwhelming number of positive reviews for all the flavors. PEScience Select Protein boasts a 4.9 out of 5-star rating, which is very impressive.

While there are a few scattered 3-star reviews, suggesting that some flavors are milder, most reviewers on PEScience rave about all the flavors.

Amazon is less forgiving and the reviews are more mixed. An average rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars. Some customers found the flavors to be too sweet, not matching the advertised taste, or simply not up to par.

Flavor: 6.5. Considering the average of both flavor scores (Cake Pop at 6 and Strawberry Cheesecake at 7), I’m not blown away by either flavor profile. If you’re looking for a top-notch protein flavor, you might want to explore other options.

🎬 Is PEScience Protein Good?

Is PEScience protein good?

As we reach the end of this protein-packed journey, let’s circle back to our burning questions about PEScience Select Protein and the buzz around supplements endorsed by fitness influencers.

Firstly, regarding the hype around celebrity-endorsed supplements: While I tip my hat to Jeff Nippard for his science-based approach, it’s crucial to remember that endorsements, even from credible sources, can be swayed by financial incentives.

Now, diving into the heart of PEScience: Is it worth your hard-earned cash? PEScience does a few things right – they offer sound advice for choosing proteins, tempt you with freebies, and their protein flavors are like a carousel – varied and inviting.

But here’s where the rubber meets the road: Can I give PEScience my seal of approval? Nope. Why, you ask? It boils down to a few key points:

  • The literature on PEScience’s website isn’t always honest.
  • The amino acid profile of their product is like a puzzle with missing pieces.
  • Transparency about their ingredients is as clear as mud.
  • The exact amount of leucine per serving remains a mystery

So, where does this leave us?

My advice is to approach with the curiosity of a cat but the caution of a seasoned detective. In the world of protein powders, knowledge is power, and clarity is king.

In conclusion, PEScience Select Protein, with its highs and lows, leaves us at a crossroads. It’s not about outright rejection or blind acceptance, but about making informed choices. Stay sharp, stay savvy, and let your fitness journey be guided by wisdom, not just by what’s trending.

For those seeking alternatives to PEScience Select, fear not. The protein powder universe is vast and varied. Explore it with an open mind, but don’t forget to pack your magnifying glass.

PEScience Vs Optimum Nutrition

Comparing PEScience and Optimum Nutrition: Let’s see how they stack up against each other in terms of ingredients, flavors, and value. For a detailed review of Optimum Nutrition, click here.

Protein Source

Both protein powders feature multi-source proteins. Optimum Nutrition (ON) Gold Standard Whey utilizes a straightforward blend, including whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and hydrolyzed whey protein.

It’s worth noting that ON provides full transparency regarding the ingredients and amino acid profile in their Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein, a level of detail not shared by PEScience.

Flavor and Mixability

Optimum Nutrition offers a variety of flavors that will suit your pallet. None of the flavors are too crazy. In comparison, PEScience offers 10 unique and interesting flavors.

In regards to mixability of both brands. PEScience users have reported annoying clumps with some of their mixes, something that is not commonly experienced with ON Gold Standard 100% Whey.

Price per serving

ON Gold Standard 100% Whey is readily available at majority of physical retailers. If you need it today, chances are you can find it at a place where supplements are sold.

  • Optimum Nutrition (ON) Gold Standard Whey: $35.45, 29 servings, $1.22 per serving
  • PEScience Select Protein: $39.99, 27 servings, $1.48 per serving
FEATURED
Unbiased final review score of ON Gold Standard 100% Whey

Balanced Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Review

4.6

24g of muscle-building protein and 11g of essential amino acids per serving, it’s great for recovery.

The 5.5g of naturally occurring branched-chain amino acids add to its appeal. Plus, Optimum Nutrition’s reputation as a top sports nutrition brand ensures quality and safety.

It’s a versatile choice for any time of day – pre or post-workout, between meals, or with a meal.

  • High protein content
  • 18 different flavors
  • Mixes great
  • Multiple price points to fit every budget
  • Low to no GI issues
  • World’s #1 sports nutrition brand
  • Blended protein
  • May contain soy
Buy Now

🎼 PEScience Select Protein Review Round Up

Value 5 out of 10
Protein Spiking 1 out of 10 (spiked)
Mixability 6.5 out of 10
Ingredient Profile 6 out of 10
Macro Composition 5 out of 10
Flavor 6.5 out of 10

PEScience Select Protein Review Final Score 30/60, 50%, Don’t Buy

PEScience final review score

Sources

Churchward‐Venne, T. A., Burd, N. A., Mitchell, C. J., West, D. W. D., Philp, A., Marcotte, G. R., Baker, S. K., Baar, K., & Phillips, S. M. (2012). Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. The Journal of Physiology, 590(11), 2751–2765. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.228833

Formulation & Product Questions. (n.d.). Optimum Nutrition. https://service.optimumnutrition.com/en/support/solutions/80000264938

Kolschowsky, C. (2023, October 8). Leucine in Your Protein – What is it and why does it matter? PEScience. https://pescience.com/blogs/articles/leucine-in-your-protein-what-is-it-and-why-does-it-matter

Lim, C. H., Gil, J. H., Quan, H., Viet, D. H., & Kim, C. K. (2018). Effect of 8-week leucine supplementation and resistance exercise training on muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell activation in rats. Physiological Reports, 6(12), e13725. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13725

PepForm® – Leucine Peptides by Glanbia Nutritionals – Food, Beverage & Nutrition. (n.d.). https://www.ulprospector.com/en/na/Food/Detail/3686/361357/PepForm—Leucine-Peptides

Stark, M., Lukaszuk, J. M., Prawitz, A. D., & Salacinski, A. J. (2012). Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-9-54

Volpi, E. (2018). Is leucine content in dietary protein the key to muscle preservation in older women? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(2), 143–144. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy009

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